Working from the online copy of an old text with old-time printing (see HERE), plus the random punctuation (periods in the middle of a sentence, or run-on sentences unmarked by neither periods nor commas), plus very similar spellings of different locations (-ציליציאה לידיאה-ליביאה, ציציליאה), plus unfamiliarity with these locations (partly because the geography changed since the 16th Century & partly because Spanish names are often used)—I admit I got mixed up.
For example, one part on page 220 reads (picture this in Hebrew that's not the clearest typesetting):
Chavilah are the nations of Yitula that's in Arabia Savtca. are the nations. of Astbray in Libya Savtca Raama Shva Dadon Nimrod Ludim Anamim Lahavim Naftuchim Patrusim Kasluchim from whom came Plishtim Kaftorim Tzidon all these are scattered throughout the towns and regions of that are in the kingdoms of Lydia Chet is the island of Piombino...
Chavilah are the nations of Yitula that's in Arabia.
Savtca are the nations of Astbray in Libya.
Savtca, Raama, Shva, Dadon, Nimrod, Ludim, Anamim, Lahavim, Naftuchim, Patrusim, Kasluchim (from whom came Plishtim), Kaftorim, Tzidon—all these are scattered throughout the towns and regions of that are in the kingdoms of Lydia.
Chet is the island of Piombino...
Heck, you can find typos in my writing too, and I don't even have the excuse of using an old-fashioned printing press without spellcheck. So no condemnation of the printing here, just explaining why it was hard to work out the words.
So, for example, most of bnei Cham actually settled in Lydia (Turkey), and not Libya as previously stated. Apologies.
Thank you very much to the readers in both posts who left comments, which spurred on the double-check & the addition of maps.
Corrections (and MAPS!) lie below...
The Descendants of Noach
With the help of Rav Gedalia ibn Yachya's Shalshelet HaKabbalah (Chain of Tradition), first published in Venice in 1586, we understand more about the location of those descendants today.
(Note: Though I tried very hard to decipher the names of the regions, I still didn't manage to understand all of them. So I only listed those of whom I was pretty sure.)
The first list originates in Sefer Yechusin, but quoted in Shalshelet HaKabbalah.
Lineage according to Sefer Yechusin as quoted in Shalshelet HaKabbalah
First of all, he writes that bnei Yafet took the area of Lusitania, which today is where part of Portugal & Western Spain lie.
Gomer & Magog are a part of Medea called Shirvan. (Shirvan lies in today's northeastern Iran.)
Yavan is Greece.
Tuval is Spain.
Meshech is the Kingdom of Persia. (In the 1586, this included Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikstan, and parts of Iraq, Pakistan, and even China.)
Tiras stretches from Venice until Hungary.
Rifat is England & possibly Troynes in France: "Inglaterra and Troyne (טרוייני)".
Gomer is Ashkenaz (Germany) and its capital is Bohemia. (Bohemia was a kingdom that encompasses at least the Czech Republic today & lay under Habsburg rule in Rav Gedalia's time.)
Torgemah is Turkey.
Tarshish is a region called Cilicia in southeastern Turkey. (But some say Tarshish is Sicily.)
Dodanim is Rhodes.
Bnei Cham (Ham)
Kush is the "kingdom of the blacks."
Sava & Shva (Sheba) are the kingdom of Greece. (Yeah, that surprised me too. I was sure they'd be labeled as somewhere in Africa.)
Put is Libya & Nineveh (Iraq), close to Ashur (Syria).
Patros & Caphtor extend from Gaza until Egypt.
Girgashi is Gurjistan (Georgia in Russia today).
Lineage according to the Author of Shalshelet HaKabbalah
Elam is in the Kingdom of Persia.
Ashur is Syria "and Arpachshad is near it."
Aram is Damascus.
Lud is possibly Lydia, in Turkey.
Utz is near the land of Canaan.
Chol is Armenia.
Gether is Carmania (Kermen in Iran).
Mash is "Meyuni" (מיאוני) (not sure where that is & not sure why I initially assumed it was Greece).
All the descendants of Yaktan (from Shelach) settled in the countries in the East.
Midyan & Afar are "the children of Avraham Avinu in the kingdom of Africa."
Bnei Yafet (Japehth)
Gomer is Galatia (Anapoli in Turkey).
Magog is a place called "Shetia," possibly in Iraq.
Medai is Medea (Iran).
Yavan is Grazia (an island near Italy).
Tuval is Spain.
Meshech is Cappadocia (in Turkey) "near Armenia."
Tiras is possibly Thrace, an ancient region that today includes parts of Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.
Ashkenaz is Tartary (which is weird because that includes Mongolia, so maybe I misunderstood where Tartarzia is.)
The descendants of Rifat ended up in Venice after first settling in a place called "Dypia" (דיפיאה).
Torgemah is Prague.
Bnei Cham (Ham)
Kush is Ethiopia.
Mitzrayim is Egypt.
Put is Libya.
Canaan is "Palestiana, near Eretz Yisrael."
Sava is Arabia.
Chavilah ended up being a group of nations in Arabia.
Savtca is a group within Libya.
In general, he says, the descendants of Kush are scattered throughout the towns and regions of the Kingdom of Lydia (which is western Turkey today) in his time.
Here is the specific sons of Kush who settled Lydia:
- Savtca (who also ended up in Libya, not just Lydia)
- Kasluchim ("from whom came Plishtim")
Chet is the island Piombino in Northern Italy.
Chivi is near Lebanon.
Sini is Tripoli.
Chiti & Emori are close to Yerushalayim.
Yevusi is Yerushalayim.
Emori, Girgashi, Chivi, Sini, Arvadi, Arki, Tzamari, and Chamat were scattered throughout Eretz Yisrael, and "uprooted from the world by Bnei Yisrael."
Maps of Old Turkey, Modern Turkey, Europe, and the Sardis Synagogue
Here is a map of 15th-century Turkey, not long before the publishing of Shalshelet HaKabbalah.
You can see Thrace in the upper left, Capadocia in the upper right, plus Lydia (under ASIA MINOR) and Cilicia (down at the bottom, not far above Syria), among a lot of other places:
Here, you see Armenia, Shirvan (on the coast of the Caspian Sea), and Kerman below in the mustard color.
Ancestral Opinions of Other Sources
Rifat is the Aeolian Islands (near Italy).
There's a tradition that the inhabitants of Ashkenaz are the Canaanites who fled before Yehoshua.
Also, Josephus says that Tarshish is Tuscany (central Italy), but others say that Tarshish is Tunis, while still others say it's Carthage (a coastal region within present-day Tunisia) in Africa.
The Targum Yerushalmit states that the "daughter of Edom residing in the land of Utz is Armenia."
Some say Yafet is France & Britain.
Some say Tuval is Pisa.
Some say Tiras is Russia.
A commentary on Daniel states that Cutim is Rome, the kingdoms of Greece & Rome as one.
Elisha is Borgonia (Borgoñá), which is today in Gerona, Spain.
Apparently, Rebbi Shmuel says that Gomer & Magog are Africa, Zarmenia, Medea, Mokdonia, Aisania, and Tunia.
We know what Africa is.
Medea is a region which is today northern & western Iran.
Mokdonia is Macedonia, a region in modern Greece.
Aisania is presumably Asia.
And as for Tunia? Today, there is a region in Pakistan called Tunia Baqa Shah, but I don't know if that's it, but it makes sense seeing as Pakistan is in southeast Asia and borders on Iran, south of Medea, which lies in the same region as the others listed here.
But I couldn't figure out "Zarmenia."
What is Unglakira? Probably one of the countries bordering Russia at that time, but I couldn't figure out which one.
Also, it's interesting to note above the general location of Tarshish, which is where Yonah Hanavi intended to sail.
It was apparently either somewhere in Italy or in Tunisia, which isn't so far from Italy—just on the other side of the Mediterranean Sea.
When he names the location of Ashkenaz, he calls it "Alemania"—which is the Spanish name for Germany.
The Gemara also states the location of Ashkenaz as "Germamia."
It's interesting also to note that Germany consists of the descendants of Ashkenaz (via Gomer from Yafet) and also the Canaanites.
Seeing as Chazal identifies Amalek in their time as "Germamia" (Germany), it's interesting to think that the people in the German region comprise a mix of Amalek and Canaanites.
Canaan was a very icky, immoral, human-sacrificing nation in ancient times.
And though the Americas had been discovered in his time, Shalshelet HaKabbalah doesn't mention the American continent in his list. Or perhaps he did, and I simply didn't understand the term he used.
Europeans only discovered Australia and the rest of Oceania after his time, so these are not mentioned either.
Anyway, this sums up the Shalshelet HaKabbalah's tracing of the descendants of Noach.